This is a recommended reading list for psychologists and psychiatrists who conduct VA claim exams with United States military veterans for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental disorders.
This C&P mental health examiners reading list was originally compiled by several Compensation and Pension (C&P) psychologists and psychiatrists from around the country in 2014, and has been periodically updated since then by Mark D Worthen PsyD.
If you find any errors, including broken links, please let Mark know.
Also, if you think an article, book, or other resource should be added to this list, please contact Mark.
(i) If you are a VA employee, contact your local librarian and/or consult the VHA National Desktop Library. VA librarians are immensely helpful and you can find about 80% of journals directly and the rest through interlibrary loan.
(ii) Request an article from the author(s).
(iii) Search for the title of the article on Google Scholar – look to the right for links to PDF copies of the article (not always available, but worth a try).
(iv) Search for the article title on WorldCat.org, which will generate a list of libraries in your area that subscribe to that journal.
+ New since the April 2018 update.
* Recommended for new C&P psychologists or psychiatrists.
This Recommended Reading List was updated on 7 Feb 2019.
Adler, A. B. & Castro, C. A. (2013). An occupational mental health model for the military. Military Behavioral Health, 1(1), 41-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/21635781.2012.721063
Arbisi, P. A., Murdoch, M., Fortier, L., & McNulty, J. (2004). MMPI-2 validity and award of service connection for PTSD during the VA Compensation and Pension evaluation. Psychological Services, 1(1), 56. https://doi.org/10.1037/1541-15188.8.131.52
Arbisi, P. A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & McNulty, J. (2006). The ability of the MMPI-2 to detect feigned PTSD within the context of compensation seeking. Psychological Services, 3(4), 249-261. https://doi.org/10.1037/1541-15184.108.40.206
Bass, C., & Halligan, P. (2014). Factitious disorders and malingering: challenges for clinical assessment and management. The Lancet, 383(9926), 1422–1432. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62186-8
Bonanno, G. A. & Mancini, A. D. (2012). Beyond resilience and PTSD: Mapping the heterogeneity of responses to potential trauma. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(1), 74-83.
*Bornstein, R. F. (2016). Evidence-based psychological assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment 99(4), 435-445.
Bovin, M. J., Marx, B. P., & Schnurr, P. P. (2015). Evolving DSM diagnostic criteria for PTSD: Relevance for assessment and treatment. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 2(1), 86-98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40501-015-0032-y
Caron, J. E., & Floyd, M. R. (2018). Compensation and pension examinations with older veterans. In S.S. Bush & A.L. Heck (Eds.) Forensic geropsychology: practice essentials. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Caron, J. E. (2017). The veteran’s disability examination: Considerations for neuropsychologists. In S.S. Bush, G. Demakis, & M. Rohling (Eds.) APA Handbook of forensic neuropsychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chefetz, M. (2011). The psychological consultative examination for social security disability. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 235-244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-011-9112-5
Denning, J. H., & Shura, R. D. (2017). Cost of malingering mild traumatic brain injury-related cognitive deficits during compensation and pension evaluations in the veterans benefits administration. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult. Advance online publication, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2017.1350684
* Devine, P. G., Forscher, P. S., Austin, A. J., & Cox, W. T. L. (2012). Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1267-1278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2012.06.003 or PMC3603687/
Evans, F. B. (2011). Introduction to practice matters special section on VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 169-170.
FitzGerald, C., & Hurst, S. (2017). Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review. BMC Medical Ethics, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-017-0179-8
Franklin, C., Repasky, S., Thompson, K., Shelton, S., & Uddo, M. (2002). Differentiating overreporting and extreme distress: MMPI-2 use with compensation-seeking veterans with PTSD. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79(2), 274-285.
Frueh, B.C., Hamner, M.B., Cahill, S.P., Gold, P.B., Hamlin, K.L. (2000). Apparent symptom overreporting in combat veterans evaluated for PTSD. Clinical Psychology Review, 20 (7), 853-885.
Frueh, B. C., et al. (2005). Documented combat exposure of US veterans seeking treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 467-472.
* Garbelman, J. L. (2017). Conducting veteran dependency and indemnity compensation exams: Establishing a nexus between mental health and death. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(2), 161-176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-017-9284-8
* Garbelman, J. (2017). The insanity exemption to other than honorable discharge for the purpose of claiming benefits: the role of the mental health examiner. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(2), 177-190. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-017-9285-7
Greenberg, S. A. & Shuman, D. W. (1997). Irreconcilable conflict between therapeutic and forensic roles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 50–57. http://bit.ly/therapeutic-vs-forensic-roles
* Hall, R. C. W. & Hall, R. C. W. (2012). Compensation neurosis: A too quickly forgotten concept? The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 40(3), 390-398. http://bit.ly/compensation-neurosis
Hall, W. J., et al., (2015). Implicit racial/ethnic bias among health care professionals and its influence on health care outcomes: a systematic review. American Journal of Public Health, 105(12), e60–e76. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302903
Holowka, D. W., Marx, B. P., Gates, M. A., Litman, H. J., Ranganathan, G., Rosen, R. C., & Keane, T. M. (2014). PTSD diagnostic validity in Veterans Affairs electronic records of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(4), 569–579. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036347
* Jackson, J. C., et al. (2011). Variation in practices and attitudes of clinicians assessing PTSD-related disability among Veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(5), 609–613. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20688
+ Jankowski RL, Black AC, Lazar CM, Brummett BR, Rosen MI (2019). Consideration of substance use in compensation and pension examinations of veterans filing PTSD claims. PLOS ONE 14(2): e0210938. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210938
* Johansen, T. (2017). Core competencies in VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury & Law, 10(3), 234-243. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-017-9298-2
Maguen, S. & Litz, B. (2012). Moral injury in veterans of war. PTSD Research Quarterly, 23(1), 1-6.
Marmar, C. R., Schlenger, W., Henn-Haase, C., Qian, M., Purchia, E., Li, M., . . . Kulka, R. A. (2015). Course of posttraumatic stress disorder 40 Years after the Vietnam War: Findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(9), 875-881. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0803
* Marx, B. P., Bovin, M. J., Szafranski, D. D., Engel-Rebitzer, E., Gallagher, M. W., Holowka, D. W., … Keane, T. M. (2016). Validity of posttraumatic stress disorder service connection status in Veterans Affairs electronic records of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77(4), 517–522. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.14m09666
* Marx, B. P., Engel-Rebitzer, E., Bovin, M. J., Parker-Guilbert, K. S., Moshier, S., Barretto, K., & Keane, T. M. (2017). The influence of veteran race and psychometric testing on Veterans Affairs posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) disability exam outcomes. Psychological Assessment, 29(6), 710-719. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000378
Meyer, G. J., et al. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 56(2), 128-165.
Milchman, M. S. (2011). The roles of scientific and clinical epistemologies in forensic mental health assessments. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(2), 127-139. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-011-9104-5
*Moering, R. G. (2011). Military service records: Searching for the truth. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 217-234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-011-9114-3 | http://bit.ly/military-service-records (PDF)
*Morel, K. R. (2013). Cutoff scores for the Morel Emotional Numbing Test for PTSD: Considerations for use in VA mental health examinations. Psychological Injury and Law, 6(2), 138-143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-013-9151-1
Murdoch, M., Sayer, N. A., Spoont, M. R., Rosenheck, R. A., Noorbaloochi, S., Griffin, J. M., Arbisi, P. A., & Hagel, E. M. (2011). Long-term outcomes of disability benefits in US veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(10), 1072-1080. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.105
*Orme, D. R. (2012). Diagnosing PTSD: Lessons from neuropsychology. Military Psychology, 24, 397-413. https://doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2012.695262
Poyner, G. (2010). Psychological evaluations of veterans claiming PTSD disability with the Department of Veterans Affairs: A clinician’s viewpoint. Psychological Injury and Law, 3, 130– 132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-010-9076-x
*Ray, C. L. (2017). Practical use of MMPI-2-RF validity indicators in VA compensation and pension examinations. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(3), 223-233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-017-9289-3
*Rodriguez, P., Holowka, D. W., & Marx, B. P. (2012). Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder-related functional impairment: A review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 49(5), 649-666. https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2011.09.0162
Rosen, M. I. (2010). Compensation examinations for PTSD—an opportunity for treatment? Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 47, xv–xxii. https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2010.04.0075
Rosen, M. I., et al. (2013). Racial differences in veterans' satisfaction with examination of disability from posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Services, 64(4), 354-359. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201100526
*Rubenzer, S. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Assessing response style and malingering. Psychological Injury and Law, 2(2), 114–142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-009-9045-4
*Russo, A. C. (2013). Ethical, legal and risk management considerations in the neuropsychological assessment of veterans. Psychological Injury and Law, 6(1), 21–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-013-9145-z
Salgado, C. A. & Dike, C. C. (2015). Veterans Affairs' problematic evaluation of a veteran's claim for service-connected psychiatric disability. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 43(1), 119-121. http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/1/119
*Speroff, T., et al. (2012). Impact of evidence-based standardized assessment on the disability clinical interview for diagnosis of service-connected PTSD: A cluster-randomized trial. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(6), 607-615. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21759
*Strasburger, L. G., Gutheil, T. G. & Brodsky, A. (1997). On wearing two hats: Role conflict in serving as both psychotherapist and expert witness. American Journal Of Psychiatry, 154(4), 448–456.
Steenkamp, M. M., & Litz, B. T. (2013). Psychotherapy for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder: Review of the evidence. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(1), 45–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.10.002
Stewart, R. W., Tuerk, P. W., Metzger, I. W., Davidson, T. M., & Young, J. (2016). A decision-tree approach to the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Engineering empirically rigorous and ecologically valid assessment measures. Psychological Services, 13(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000069 | PMC5312769
Weathers, F. W., Marx, B. P., Friedman, M. J., & Schnurr, P. P. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder in DSM-5: New criteria, new measures, and implications for assessment. Psychological Injury and Law, 7(2), 93-107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-014-9191-1
*Wisdom, N. M., Pastorek, N. J., Miller, B. I., Booth, J. E., Romesser, J. M., Linck, J. F., & Sim, A. H. (2013). PTSD and cognitive functioning: Importance of including performance validity testing. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2013.863977
*Worthen, M. D. & Moering, R. G. (2011). A practical guide to conducting VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 187-216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-011-9115-2 | http://bit.ly/ptsd-exams (PDF)
*Young, G. (2015). Towards balanced VA and SSA policies in psychological injury disability assessment. Psychological Injury and Law, 8(3), 200-218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-015-9230-6
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