This is a recommended reading list for psychologist and psychiatrist C&P examiners - those who conduct VA claim exams with United States military veterans for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental disorders.
Or jump down the page to review the list on this web page.
This recommended reading list for C&P psychologist and psychiatrist examiners was originally compiled by several Compensation and Pension (C&P) psychologists and psychiatrists from around the country in 2014, and has been periodically updated since then by Mark D Worthen PsyD.
This list is not a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) document.
If you find any errors, including broken links, please let Mark know.
Also, if you think an article, book, or other resource should be added to this list, please contact Mark.
(i) If you are a VA employee, contact your local librarian and/or consult the VHA National Desktop Library. VA librarians are immensely helpful and you can find about 80% of journals directly and the rest through interlibrary loan.
(ii) Request an article from the author(s).
(iii) Search for the title of the article on Google Scholar – look to the right side of the search results page for links to PDF copies of the article.
Also click on "All n versions", where n is a numeral indicating the number of versions of the article available online. You can often find PDF (or HTML) versions of an article in this manner.
(iv) If a citation has a PMC citation, e.g., "PMC2867495", that means a full-text (PubReader, ePub, PDF) version of the article is available on PubMed Central. [PubMed Central® is a free full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM).]
Anfang, S. A., Gold, L. H., &
Meyer, D. J. (2018). AAPL practice resource
for the forensic evaluation of psychiatric disability. Journal of the American Academy of
Psychiatry and the Law, 46(1) (Supplement), S1—S47.
American Bar Association/American Psychological Association (2008). Assessment of older adults with diminished capacity: A handbook for psychologists. Washington, D.C.: Authors.
American Psychological Association (2013). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychology. American Psychologist, 68(1), 7–19.
Association of VA Psychologist Leaders (AVAPL) Mental Health C&P “listserv” Email Discussion List – Send request to join to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Auer, Marjorie, Troy Baxley, Joseph Enderle, Caroll McBrine, and Lewis R. Coulson, C&P Service Clinician's Guide, version 3.0, ed. Lewis R. Coulson (Washington, D.C.: Dep't Veterans Aff., Veterans Health Admin., March 2002), 5–15, 181–217.
Bornstein, R. F. (2016). Evidence-based psychological assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment 99(4), 435-445.
Bush, S. S., Heilbronner, R. L., & Ruff, R. M. (2014). Psychological assessment of symptom and performance validity, response bias, and malingering: Official position of the Association for Scientific Advancement in Psychological Injury and Law. Psychological Injury and Law, 7(3), 197–205.
Coyle, S., Ishizawar, A., & Seesel, H. (2012). The medical examiner as factfinder: the effect of the lay evidence doctrine on VA's duty to assist in securing medical nexus opinions. Veterans Law Review, 4, 131–161.
Marx, B. P., Bovin, M. J., Szafranski, D. D., Engel-Rebitzer, E., Gallagher, M. W., Holowka, D. W., … Keane, T. M. (2016). Validity of posttraumatic stress disorder service connection status in Veterans Affairs electronic records of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77(4), 517–522. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.14m09666 (in the public domain for U.S. residents)
Moering, R. G. (2011). Military service records: Searching for the truth. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 217-234.
Orme, D. R. (2012). Diagnosing PTSD: Lessons from neuropsychology. Military Psychology, 24, 397-413.
Ray, C. L. (2017). Practical use of MMPI-2-RF validity indicators in VA compensation and pension examinations. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(3), 223-233.
Ridgway, J. D. (2012). Mind reading and the art of drafting medical opinions in veterans benefits claims. Psychological Injury and Law, 5(1), 72-87.
Russo, A. C. (2013). Ethical, legal and risk management considerations in the neuropsychological assessment of veterans. Psychological Injury and Law, 6(1), 21–30.
Russo, A. C. (2014). Assessing veteran symptom validity. Psychological Injury and Law, 7(2), 178-190.
Speroff, T., et al. (2012). Impact of evidence-based standardized assessment on the disability clinical interview for diagnosis of service-connected PTSD: A cluster-randomized trial. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(6), 607-615.
Worthen, M. D. & Moering, R. G. (2011). A practical guide to conducting VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 187-216. doi:10.1007/s12207-011-9115-2
Young, G. (2015). Malingering in forensic disability-related assessments: Prevalence 15±15%. Psychological injury and law, 8(3), 188-199.
Varela, J. G., &
Conroy, M. A. (2012). Professional competencies in forensic psychology. Professional
Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(5), 410-421.
Allen v. Principi, 237 F.3d 1368 (Fed. Cir. 2001).
Arbisi, P. A., Murdoch, M., Fortier, L., & McNulty, J. (2004). MMPI-2 validity and award of service connection for PTSD during the VA Compensation and Pension evaluation. Psychological Services, 1(1), 56. https://doi.org/10.1037/1541-15188.8.131.52
Bonanno, G. A. & Mancini, A. D. (2012). Beyond resilience and PTSD: Mapping the heterogeneity of responses to potential trauma. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(1), 74-83.
Caron, J. E. (2017). The veteran’s disability examination: considerations for neuropsychologists. In S.S. Bush, G. Demakis, & M. Rohling (Eds.) APA Handbook of forensic neuropsychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Caron, J. E., & Floyd, M. R. (2018). Compensation and pension examinations with older veterans. In S.S. Bush & A.L. Heck (Eds.) Forensic geropsychology: practice essentials. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Denning, J. H., & Shura, R. D. (2017). Cost of malingering mild traumatic brain injury-related cognitive deficits during compensation and pension evaluations in the veterans benefits administration. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult. Advance online publication. 1–16. doi:10.1080/23279095.2017.1350684
Devine, P. G., Forscher, P. S., Austin, A. J., & Cox, W. T. L. (2012). Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1267-1278. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.06.003 PMC3603687
Franklin, C., Repasky, S., Thompson, K., Shelton, S., & Uddo, M. (2002). Differentiating overreporting and extreme distress: MMPI-2 use with compensation-seeking veterans with PTSD. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79(2), 274-285.
Frueh, B.C., Hamner, M.B., Cahill, S.P., Gold, P.B., Hamlin, K.L. (2000). Apparent symptom overreporting in combat veterans evaluated for PTSD. Clinical Psychology Review, 20 (7), 853-885.
Garbelman, J. L. (2017). Conducting veteran dependency and indemnity compensation exams: Establishing a nexus between mental health and death. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(2), 161-176. doi:10.1007/s12207-017-9284-8
Garbelman, J. (2017). The insanity exemption to other than honorable discharge for the purpose of claiming benefits: the role of the mental health examiner. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(2), 177-190. doi:10.1007/s12207-017-9285-7
Greenberg, S. A. & Shuman, D. W. (1997). Irreconcilable conflict between therapeutic and forensic roles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 50–57. | http://bit.ly/therapeutic-vs-forensic-roles
Hall, R. C. W. & Hall, R. C. W. (2012). Compensation neurosis: A too quickly forgotten concept? The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 40(3), 390-398. http://jaapl.org/content/jaapl/40/3/390.full.pdf
Hernandez, C. (2016, February 21). Thieves and liars: PTSD fakers and the VA. Breach. Bang. Clear.
Holowka, D. W., Marx, B. P., Gates, M. A., Litman, H. J., Ranganathan, G., Rosen, R. C., & Keane, T. M. (2014). PTSD diagnostic validity in Veterans Affairs electronic records of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(4), 569–579. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036347 (paywall) https://perma.cc/U3VA-N4B9 (PDF)
Jackson, J. C., et al. (2011). Variation in practices and attitudes of clinicians assessing PTSD-related disability among Veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(5), 609–613. | https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20688
Jankowski RL, Black AC, Lazar CM, Brummett BR, Rosen MI (2019). Consideration of substance use in compensation and pension examinations of veterans filing PTSD claims. PLOS ONE 14(2): e0210938. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210938 (open source)
Johansen, T. (2017). Core competencies in VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury & Law, 10(3), 234-243. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-017-9298-2
Jones v. Shinseki, 23 Vet. App. 382 (2010).
Mathis v. McDonald, 834 F. 3d 1347, 1356 (Fed. Cir. 2016) (Reyna, J., dissenting from denial of rehearing en banc)
Mathis v. McDonald, 834 F. 3d 1347 (Fed. Cir. 2016) (denial of hearing en banc), cert. denied, Mathis v. Shulkin, U.S. No. 16-677, slip op. (Sotomayor, J., statement) (June 26, 2017)
Mathis v. McDonald, 834 F. 3d 1347 (Fed. Cir. 2016) (denial of hearing en banc), cert. denied, Mathis v. Shulkin, U.S. No. 16-677, slip op. (Gorsuch, J., dissenting) (June 26, 2017)
McMath, William. (2015). My education at the VA: C&P exams and PTSD. (Fifty well-written, illuminating blog posts written by a former C&P psychologist.)
Morel, K. R. (2013). Cutoff scores for the Morel Emotional Numbing Test for PTSD: Considerations for use in VA mental health examinations. Psychological Injury and Law, 6(2), 138-143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-013-9151-1
Murdoch, M., Sayer, N. A., Spoont, M. R., Rosenheck, R. A., Noorbaloochi, S., Griffin, J. M., Arbisi, P. A., & Hagel, E. M. (2011). Long-term outcomes of disability benefits in US veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(10), 1072-1080. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.105
Nieves-Rodriguez v. Peake, 22 Vet. App. 295 (2008).
Nohr v. McDonald, 27 Vet. App. 124 (2015).
Poyner, G. (2010). Psychological evaluations of veterans claiming PTSD disability with the Department of Veterans Affairs: A clinician’s viewpoint. Psychological Injury and Law, 3, 130– 132. doi:10.1007/s12207-010-9076-x
Vazquez-Claudio v. Shinseki, 713 F.3d 112, 117 (2013).
Veterans Benefits for PTSD in the United States (Wikipedia).
Veterans Law Library – best source of veterans law updates.
Young, G. (2015). Towards balanced VA and SSA policies in psychological injury disability assessment. Psychological Injury and Law, 8(3), 200-218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-015-9230-6
Zarembo, A. (2014, August 3). As disability awards grow, so do concerns with veracity of PTSD claims. Los Angeles Times.
Adler, A. B. & Castro, C. A. (2013). An occupational mental health model for the military. Military Behavioral Health, 1(1), 41-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/21635781.2012.721063
Arbisi, P. A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & McNulty, J. (2006). The ability of the MMPI-2 to detect feigned PTSD within the context of compensation seeking. Psychological Services, 3(4), 249-261. doi:10.1037/1541-15184.108.40.206
Bass, C., & Halligan, P. (2014). Factitious disorders and malingering: challenges for clinical assessment and management. The Lancet, 383(9926), 1422–1432. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62186-8
Bovin, M. J., Marx, B. P., & Schnurr, P. P. (2015). Evolving DSM diagnostic criteria for PTSD: Relevance for assessment and treatment. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 2(1), 86-98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40501-015-0032-y
Chefetz, M. (2011). The psychological consultative examination for social security disability. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 235-244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-011-9112-5
Cocchiarella, L. & Gunnar, B. J. A. (2001). Mental and behavioral disorders. In Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 5th ed. Chicago: American Medical Association Press. See also Rondinelli, Robert D. (medical editor). Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 6th ed.
Department of Veterans Affairs (2004). C&P clinicians’ guide. Washington, D.C.: Author. [Note that the VA reportedly no longer considers the C&P Clinicians’ Guide to be authoritative.]
Editorial (2014, November 18). Revamp VA disability benefits. Los Angeles Times.
Evans, F. B. (2011). Introduction to practice matters special section on VA compensation and pension exams for PTSD and other mental disorders. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(3-4), 169-170.
Faust, D. (2011). Coping with psychiatric and psychological testimony: based on the original work by Jay Ziskin (6th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
FitzGerald, C., & Hurst, S. (2017). Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review. BMC Medical Ethics, 18(1). doi:10.1186/s12910-017-0179-8 | PMC5333436
Foote, W. E. (2008). Evaluations of individuals for disability in insurance and Social Security contexts. In R. Jackson (Ed.), Learning forensic assessment (International Perspectives on Forensic Mental Health) (pp. 449–479). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Frueh, B. C., et al. (2005). Documented combat exposure of US veterans seeking treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 467-472. [PDF]
Gade, D. M. (2013). Avoiding perverse incentives in the wounded veteran’s recovery process. In T. Meyer (Ed.), Serving those who served: A wise giver’s guide to assisting veterans and military families (pp. 14-31). Washington, D.C.: The Philanthropy Roundtable. | PDF
Hall, W. J., et al., (2015). Implicit racial/ethnic bias among health care professionals and its influence on health care outcomes: a systematic review. American Journal of Public Health, 105(12), e60–e76. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302903 | PMC4638275
Harbaugh, K. (2015, June 1). The risk of over-thanking our veterans. New York Times.
Hernandez, C. (2014, February 10). PTSD: Fakers and frauds and WTAF? Breach. Bang. Clear.
Hernandez, C. (2014, February 26). PTSD, reading comprehension and the great American love of victimhood. Breach. Bang. Clear.
Huang, D. (2014, October 27). VA disability claims soar: Some see higher fraud risk as more vets seek compensation, overloading doctors. Wall Street Journal. [paywall]
Huang, D. (2015, May 11). Automated system often unjustly boosts veterans’ disability benefits. Wall Street Journal. [paywall]
Huang, D. (2016, July 15). Trying to serve more veterans faster, VA opens door to disability fraud. Wall Street Journal. [paywall]
Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (2007). PTSD compensation and military service. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Institute of Medicine, Committee on Psychological Testing (2015). Psychological testing in the service of disability determination. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Kennedy, C. H. & Zillmer, E. A. (Eds.) (2012). Military psychology: Clinical and operational applications, 2nd Edition. New York: Guilford.
Maguen, S. & Litz, B. (2012). Moral injury in veterans of war. PTSD Research Quarterly, 23(1), 1-6.
Marmar, C. R., Schlenger, W., Henn-Haase, C., Qian, M., Purchia, E., Li, M., . . . Kulka, R. A. (2015). Course of posttraumatic stress disorder 40 Years after the Vietnam War: Findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(9), 875-881. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0803
Meyer, G. J., et al. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 56(2), 128-165. https://doi.org/10.1037//OOO3-O66X.56.2.128
Melton, G. B., Petrila, J., Poythress, N. G., Slobogin, C., Otto, R. K., Mossman, D., & Condie, L. O. (Eds.) (2017). Psychological evaluations for the courts (4th ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
Milchman, M. S. (2011). The roles of scientific and clinical epistemologies in forensic mental health assessments. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(2), 127-139. doi:10.1007/s12207-011-9104-5
Ridgway, J. (2015). Veterans law: Cases and theory. Saint Paul, MN: West Academic.
Rodriguez, P., Holowka, D. W., & Marx, B. P. (2012). Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder-related functional impairment: A review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 49(5), 649-666.
Rosen, M. I. (2010). Compensation examinations for PTSD—an opportunity for treatment? Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 47, xv–xxii.
Rosen, M. I., et al. (2013). Racial differences in veterans' satisfaction with examination of disability from posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Services, 64(4), 354-359.
Rogers, R. (Ed.). (2018). Clinical assessment of malingering and deception (4th ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
Rubenzer, S. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Assessing response style and malingering. Psychological Injury and Law, 2(2), 114–142.
Salgado, C. A. & Dike, C. C. (2015). Veterans Affairs' problematic evaluation of a veteran's claim for service-connected psychiatric disability. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 43(1), 119-121.
Steenkamp, M. M., & Litz, B. T. (2013). Psychotherapy for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder: Review of the evidence. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(1), 45–53.
Stewart, R. W., Tuerk, P. W., Metzger, I. W., Davidson, T. M., & Young, J. (2016). A decision-tree approach to the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Engineering empirically rigorous and ecologically valid assessment measures. Psychological Services, 13(1), 1–9. doi:10.1037/ser0000069
Watson, P., McFall, M., McBrine, C., Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Keane, T., & Hamblen, J. L. (2002). Best practice manual for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compensation and pension examinations. Washington, D.C.: Department of Veterans Affairs. [Note: VA no longer considers the Best Practice Manual to be authoritative.]
Weathers, F. W., Keane, T. M., & Foa, E. B. (2009). Assessment and diagnosis of adults. In E. B. Foa, T. M. Keane, M. J. Friedman & J. A. Cohen (Eds.), Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (2nd Ed.) (pp. 23-61). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Weathers, F. W., Marx, B. P., Friedman, M. J., & Schnurr, P. P. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder in DSM-5: New criteria, new measures, and implications for assessment. Psychological Injury and Law, 7(2), 93-107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-014-9191-1
Wisdom, N. M., Pastorek, N. J., Miller, B. I., Booth, J. E., Romesser, J. M., Linck, J. F., & Sim, A. H. (2013). PTSD and cognitive functioning: Importance of including performance validity testing. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2013.863977
Woody R. H. (2013). Legal self-defense for mental health practitioners: Quality care and risk management strategies. New York, NY: Springer.
Zarembo, A. (2014, July 12). With U.S. encouragement, VA disability claims rise sharply. Los Angeles Times.
Zarembo, A. (2014, September 6). Seniors boost number of veterans deemed unemployable. Los Angeles Times.
Zarembo, A. (2014, November 16). Disability system for veterans strays far from its official purpose. Los Angeles Times.
Zarembo, A. (2015, November 23). VA is buried in a backlog of never-ending veterans disability appeals. Los Angeles Times.
 Daniel Huang, VA Shift Opens Door to Disability Fraud, Wall Street Journal, July 15, 2016 at A1; published online as Trying to Serve More Veterans Faster, VA Opens Door to Disability Fraud (July 14, 2016)
Click here to download the Psychologist and Psychiatrist C&P Examiners Recommended Reading List (updated 17 Sep 2019)
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