Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

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General Information
- Footnotes & Bibliography

General Information

Footnotes & Bibliography

Question: Why do you have footnotes and a bibliography?

Answer: I have mostly transitioned to following the Chicago Manual of Style (hereinafter, Manual)φ instead of APA citation style.

I am specifically using the "Notes and Bibliography" format in which Notes (footnotes) appear near the text.

In a book, for example, the note appears on the same page as the footnoted text.

Footnotes are usually shortened, so that take up too much space, with the understanding that omitted information can be found in the bibliographic entry.

For example, if I cite a journal article, the note will include the exact page number I am referencing, whereas the bibliographic entry contains the full range of page numbers of the cited article. Notes do not usually include URLs, but bibliographic entries do.

For citations to court cases, I usually include the full citation in the note because this is the tradition for legal citations, a practice the Manual encourages.Ω

Since the full citation for a court case appears in the footnote, I omit the citation from the bibliography, since that would result in unnecessary duplication.

Thus, on the bibliography primarily contains full citations for journal articles and books.

φ. University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017),

Ω. "Note form for legal-style citations", Chicago Manual of Style, chap. 14, sec. 271,

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